How Animals Are Used to Create Antibodies for Human Vaccines

While humans are considered the dominant and pioneering species on this planet, there’s no denying that we’ve relied on animals for a lot of things throughout history, from transportation to companionship, and even medical breakthroughs. Our ability to study animals and how they respond to certain drugs or treatments has given us a way to test and improve medicines that have transformed the life expectancy and quality of life of our species. In addition to playing the role of test subjects for the benefit of mankind, animals are also used in the lab to produce antibodies and study how to make new antibodies, being that many pathogens that can infect humans can also affect certain kinds of animals. In the following paragraphs we’ll provide a brief overview explaining how animals are used to produce antibodies that are then used to create powerful vaccines that safeguard society from previously life-threatening illnesses.

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Finding Animals that Can Produce the Right Antibody

First, scientists need to find out which animal is capable of producing antibodies that will successfully neutralise the target antigen, which is essentially what causes the illness in humans. Animals that are commonly used for the production of polyclonal antibodies include farm animals like goats, chickens, sheep, hamsters, guinea pigs, rats, mice, and rabbits, with the latter being the most commonly used for this purpose. The appropriate animal is selected based on the amount of antibodies that need to be produced, the compatibility between the animal’s antibodies and the human recipient, and the overall health of the individual specimen, as animals that are already carrying pathogens are not preferred.

Making Sure the Animal is Safe for Antibody Production

After selecting the animal for antibody production, the scientists then need to make sure the animals are vaccinated according to a specific immunisation schedule to ensure that no diseases are passed from the antibody producing animal to the human recipient. The animal’s blood is screened for certain characteristics to determine whether they’re an ideal fit for the process. Animals that are used for antibody production in the lab are often raised from the time they’re young to ensure that no vulnerabilities are present, as bringing in animals with questionable backgrounds presents the possibility for pre-existing illnesses to cause contamination in the antibody extraction process. Rabbits are preferred because they’re known to produce superior antibodies.

 

Finally, the scientist exposes the animal to a strategic amount of the target antigen to evoke an immune system response so that the animal starts producing antibodies that fight the disease in large numbers. Scientists check to make sure the antibodies being produced are specific to the exact antigen they’re trying to find a cure or vaccine for. Once the animal encounters the pathogen they’re body begins producing antibodies that are tailored to attach to and neutralise the pathogen. These antibodies are then extracted in the animal’s serum and stored in a vile for further extraction and purification.

Chevron: Will the Drop in the Price of Oil Hurt Earnings?

As Chevron (CVX) will report earnings this week, you may be wondering if it will be beneficial to purchase shares of this company in attempt of earning higher capital gains. You may also be wondering why I am endorsing the purchase of this equity at a time when oil prices are at its lowest point for this year. While such is a valid claim, there is a more profound reason to the success that Chevron will post this week which will surprise many investors throughout Wall Street.

Since the stock market naturally is a rational expectations market, the information consumed by investors stays recent and continuously changes on a day to day basis. Many of these investors are always trying to look in foresight to how equities could potentially react to certain changes in the economy. While such is typically an insightful proposal, in the case of Chevron, many of these investors should have a clear sense of hindsight before making hasty predictions. When looking at Chevron, its previous operational results were reported a few months ago in late July. However, the actual 2nd quarter finished June 30th which surprisingly should have more implications than usually thought of.

Through that one month period between the quarter’s end and the results posted by Chevron, the oil market went through unprecedented territory reaching record highs of almost 80 dollars per barrel. While of course in the recent months oil has fallen dramatically by 25%, such an incredible value should remain in investors mind when thinking of purchasing the stock. The reason I say this can relate back to my premise of how the rational expectations market of the stock market may fool some individuals who impatiently focus completely on future news. Such sentiments sometimes have negative implications as for the 3rd quarter many Wall Street analysts have predicted an EPS estimate of 2.02 for this oil giant. While such a number may sound normal or foreign relative to what it should be, I believe such a number is greatly undervalued because of the foresight of impatient analysts. Using supportive material of only recent weeks in terms of how the oil market has performed, more than likely analysts worried over such a drop and failed to notice the record highs just three months ago and undervalue this estimate. The same can be said three months prior when analysts overvalued the EPS estimate of Chevron because of the recent events which coupled with a miss in terms of expectations for this company and immediate falling numbers. Thus if such a trend continues, it should be no surprise this Friday when Chevron posts the bottom line number way above most everyone’s expectations.

As you read that last paragraph, you may say to yourself about the effects currently happening now will bring to the next quarter results for Chevron. While such is a valid concern, think about the upcoming months. Many predictions have indicated that a milder than normal winter would be approaching. However, with snow reaching places about a month or two earlier than normal coupled with the fact the OPEC will continue to cut inventory, do not expect a significant further decrease in the price of oil anytime soon. As prices have reach their more than likely lowest point, the only way they can move now is up, and more than likely they will be up in a matter of weeks which should have a positive effect on oil companies such as Chevron. As I say this, you may be thinking that I am contradicting myself as I am looking into foresight instead of examining what has been put in front of me. However, the reasoning here is that prices have reached their lowest point of the year and won’t decrease any further. However, unlike the previous quarter’s situation where prices went from incredibly high to incredibly low, I believe this quarter there will be a much smaller margin of difference between high and low prices this upcoming quarter which should position analyst earnings to be a better representation of how Chevron will perform. If such analysis is still to risky to believe, just think of the fact that it is inevitable, with shrinking supplies, that oil prices will increase in the future complimented with the fact that Chevron is a respectable name which has grown at a steady but encouraging rate since its IPO days.

Thus, with the obvious spectacular fundamentals coupled with such EPS analysis, look for shares of Chevron to produce some positive and surprising feedback from Wall Street this week. As in most cases, predicting the future and examining the present is what will bring success. In the case of Chevron, having a clear representation of hindsight should reap more benefits than both the present and future combined.

Petrobas, Chevron Contemplating Oil And Gas Investments In Congo

The Oil Minister Celestin Mbuyu stated that the Democratic Republic of Congo is in discussion with Chevron Corp. (CVX) and Petroleo Brasileiro SA (PETR4) for investing in oil and gas. A better oil and gas infrastructure is aimed for by the Central African nation through providing blocks to companies for exploration.

Congo and Chevron group are in talks for treatment plans and gas production which may result for some changes for the company projects in the adjoining Angola. The state owned oil producer of Congo, Cohydro signed a cooperation deal with Korea National Oil Corp and aims to sign a similar deal with Petrobras. Mbuyu stated that the officials of Petrobras will come to Congo in the upcoming weeks. A proposal will be prepared by these officials and Mbuy which will then be presented to the government. The proposal will probably constitute sharing of training, knowledge and expertise between Petrobas and Cohydro.

The current oil production of Congo is up to 25,000 barrels per day. The Congo aims to raise its oil production from drilling at the eastern borders at Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda. Oil investments will also be poured to increase production from its central basin and the western coast. Petrobas related its experience of investing in oil and gas operations in the tropical forests and coastal belts.

The Congo forest is demarked into oil blocks and boasts of being the second largest tropical forest in the world. Petrobras refused to comment on its status of talks with the Congo. An agreement between the Congo and Chevron makes it possible for Chevron to transport from Angola to a gas plant in Soyo through a pipeline that runs through the Atlantic coastline of Congo. The treatment of gas from Congo at the Soyo plant may also be on the cards. The potential gas deposits in Congo have also attracted the attention of Chevron, stated Mbuyu. Chevron has also stated to an agreement for finding potential gas markets which Congo produces as by product of its petroleum production. A representative of Chevron released an email stating that the policy of the company is not to release comments on particular business opportunities.

The oil bock ownership in Angola is not clear and Chevron has postponed its development plans for this oil block. The maritime border issue between Congo and Angola remains unresolved. Due to the scheduled elections on November 28th this year, a decision by the parliament regarding a new set of codes to monitor the hydrocarbon industry may be late in coming.

The author is a knowledgeable writer in oil related fields, who frequently writes articles related to oil prices & indexes and crude oil including tips on investment in oil. Please visit oil.com for more details.

Wedding Trends: Chevron

The chevron design pattern emerged as a fashion and design trend in 2013 and is quickly gaining popularity in the wedding industry among brides and designers alike. Not only is it a stylish and versatile pattern, but it compliments any color, theme or design.When it comes to chevron-inspired designs, a little, or a lot, can go a long way.

This pattern compliments clean, modern styles and also bolder patterns as well. When used as an accent, chevron has the power to tie a theme together gracefully. However, It also can be used to set a vintage or modern tone for brides who want to feature the pattern predominantly throughout the wedding decor.

As you plan your wedding use these tips to add timeless style and elegance to invitations, decorations and even the menu!

Vintage Style
Chevron stripes can be manipulated to create a crisp, playful or intricate aesthetic. If your wedding theme is rustic or vintage inspired, infusing chevron accents in pastel colors is a beautiful way to tie the entire design together. For instance, muted silver table-runners in the distinctive chevron pattern are a subtle addition to any tablescape and they create a classic effect for centerpieces and dinnerware.

Modern with a Creative Twist
If you and your fiance are planning a modern-themed wedding the versatility of chevron is endless. You can include a chevron design on everything from the invitations to the wedding cake. You can also create different variations of the design by simply changing the color, movement, direction and size of the pattern. Brides have chosen to use chevron patterns for everything from their flower girl’s dress and wedding vases, to wedding favors, aisle runners and much more. The best part of this pattern is that it adds refined style to all wedding themes and venues.

Make it One-of-a-kind
Make your wedding legendary by designing your own distinct chevron pattern; although, it is best to work with an experienced designer who can find the perfect the color, size, direction, movement, etc. Whether you would like a clean, contemporary or vintage-inspired design, this pattern provides the perfect canvas on which to bring your dream wedding to life.

It’s too early to tell how long the Chevron wedding trend will last. However, with its classic versatility, it can easily and seamlessly be incorporated into any number of future wedding trends. In that sense, maybe this is one wedding fashion trend that will be around for a long time.

Chevron Gas Cards

Many gas cards are competing in the market right now, but one name that stand tall in the market are the Chevron gas cards. Chevron includes Texaco and cards from these firms can earn the car owner cash back on actual gas purchases. Chevron has three credit cards and these cards include the basic, the premium and the so-called business card. Each of these cards has unique advantage and can suit specific needs of the car owners and the drivers. The most popular in the market are the basic cards. And these basic cards are also considered as the best choice for customers who regularly buy gas from Texaco and Chevron gas stations.

The good thing about these cards is that they don’t ask for annual fees and right now these basic cards offer $0.10 money back on the first 500 gallons that the drivers purchased. For your convenience, the company issues monthly statements and the revolving credit system that can also help you manage your debt. In order to take advantage of this feature, you need first to enter a promo that will be initiated by the provider.

The premium gas cards are well-suited for vehicle owners who may want added benefits for travel and other purchases. The use of these cards is suggested to those who want more benefits and rewards. The last type of Chevron gas cards are the business cards and the use of these cards are great for organizations and companies. These cards come with extra security and benefits as well.

Chevron Credit Card – Is it Worth it?

If you’ve landed on this article, or you’ve come across it, you’re probably interested in the Chevron credit card that saves you money on gas. Well, you’re probably wondering if it’s worth the sign up, and if you’re going to save money while using it. I wanted to give you my little review on the card, and from there, you can decide if you want to sign up for it, or not.

The perks of the card

This card does have a lot of perks. It has no annual fees, which is great for a reward card. I’m always heavily against a card with an annual fee, because it takes away from the rewards you’re earning. Unless you’re going to spend a lot with the card, you will most likely want a card with no fees at all.

The card also offers road service with towing up to 5 miles, fuel delivery, jump starting, and tire services. You can get 2 services a year, which is a great deal to me, and I’ve never seen a card offer perks such as this before.

If you act fast, you can even save ten cents a gallon for the first 60 days.

All in all, this is a great card if you have Chevron stations in your area. You’re going to find that the road services perks alone blows away the competition.

If you don’t have a Chevron station in your area, I would highly consider getting another card that’s going to save you on gasoline.

If you don’t want the Chevron card, find the fuel cards that I recommend that can save you up to 10% all at FINDgascards.

Chevron Invests Into Arabian Oil Field

Energies such as electricity, gas and fuels, oil and petrol are very important in our day-to-day life. Lot many things are dependent on electricity, gas, petrol etc. But now that it has been proved that stocks of underground fuels are going to get over within next few decades, human race which is highly dependent on such fuels is fighting hard to invent new fuels or new ways to extract the underground treasure of fuels.

Developed countries and big companies in the industry are locking more funds for the investment in oil. Countries such as United States of America are striking new deals with the countries where new sources of energy or oil stocks are found. They are investing huge amounts also in the research of new fuels or ways extracting oil or gas from underground sources. Big Players in oil investment industry plan to join hands to push forward the research and production of oil.

Companies such as Chevron Corp. which is planning to invest as much as $40 billion for the extraction of an extra 5 billion barrels from an oilfield located at the border of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Chevron plans to spend this amount over the next quarter of a century if a green signal is given for the whole field.

The extraction is going to be done by injecting steam into the underground oil to make it liquid enough to pump. According to the sources, the steam will be injected in phases and area by area which may continue beyond 2038. Chevron is still searching for more options to supply water and fuel needed to generate the steam for the entire field.

Another company, San Ramon is triggering a pilot project that achieved very promising results at Wafra field which has reserves of about 30 billion barrels of heavy crude oil. But it is also reported that the Wafra field is in decline and produces about 240,000 barrels a day of light and heavy crude. With steam injection, the venture expects production to rise by an additional 500,000 to 600,000 barrels a day.

The project is touted as the largest steam-flood development in the world and is expected to make a final decision by 2013. The process of this project to liquefaction of underground oil will include injecting steam to heat heavy crude at the field to allow an easier flow of oil to wells for extraction. The new oil from Wafra will be heavy crude, reported the sources.

Global Ethylene Market Seeing Increased Investments for Capacity Addition Analyzes a New Report

Ethylene (C2H4) is a colorless, flammable gas with a sweetish odor and is a very important basic chemical product for the Chemical industry. After acetylene, it is the most simple alkene and unsaturated hydrocarbon. Ethylene is widely used in the Chemical industry to produce other raw materials which are in turn used for various end-use applications. The methods of production of ethylene include steam cracking of paraffinic hydrocarbons or by separation from refinery gas. The most common feedstock for ethylene manufacturing are naphtha and light gas oil, which are by-products of crude oil refining, other feedstock include gases such as ethane, propane and butane, which are obtained from NGLs. Analysts forecast the Global Ethylene market will grow at a CAGR of 6.50 percent over the period 2013-2018.

The Report recognizes the following companies as the key players in Global Ethylene Market: Dow Chemical Co., ExxonMobil Corp., Royal Dutch Shell plc, Saudi Basic Industries Corp., BASF SE, Borealis AG, Chevron Phillips Chemical Co. LLC, Equistar Chemicals LP, Huntsman Corp., Ineos Group Ltd., LG Chem Ltd., Lyondellbasell Industries Inc., Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Mitsui Chemicals Inc., National Iranian Petrochemical Co., Nova Chemicals Corp., Polimeri Europa GmbH, Repsol YPF SA, Sasol Ltd., Showa Denko K.K., Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Co. Ltd, Total AS, Tosoh Corp.

Market players are investing heavily in ethylene capacities to benefit from the abundant and inexpensive NGL feedstock in different regions. Multinational oil and gas companies are also investing in building the infrastructure to export NGL feedstock. The increased capacity and the low costs involved in ethylene production could cause an oversupply of ethylene in the market causing further price reductions, which is a trend in the market.

Covered in this Report

This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Global Ethylene market for the period 2014-2018. The report considers the volume consumption of ethylene in various industries and sectors. The report provides data on the different segments of the market based on the following criteria: Feedstock, End-use, Capacity, and Geography.

Global Ethylene Market 2014-2018, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the APAC region, North America, Middle East, and ROW; it also covers the Global Ethylene market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

Understanding Inventories of Oil

Inventories or stocks of oil are needed to keep the global supply system operating. They feed the supply chain from the tankers crossing the oceans to the tanker truck delivering to your house. There are 7-8 billion barrels of oil in industry and government inventory most of the time.

To understand the behavior of oil markets it’s important to grasp what is meant by oil stocks meaning inventory or oil, not buying Exxon or Chevron stock or investing privately in companies like, Western Pipeline Corporation. Oil is a commodity; a raw material that can be bought or sold. In a commodity market stocks and price movements are inescapably linked together. Oil delivered into a market can come from two potential sources: a fresh source such as imports of crude oil or gasoline from a refinery or from stocks (inventories) – the market buffer. Stocks supply only a small amount of the oil delivered to the market. Stocks do provide valuable information about what market segment be it a region, a product, or a company has too much or too little or just the right amount of oil. They indicate the availability of the next delivery. If stocks are low in the Eastern United States its most likely prices will go up there and when stocks are high prices will most likely fall.

The market pays close attention to reported and projected stock levels because of the linkage of stocks and price movements. Weekly and monthly reports of both reported and projected stock levels are widely read by those in the industry or invested in the industry.

There are two types of oil stocks: discretionary and non-discretionary. Non-discretionary stocks are either considered necessary or are mandated by governments. These non-discretionary stocks include: oil in transit from supplier to purchaser, oil that can’t be used without also impairing delivery reliability, storage of oil mandated by governments and oil to smooth unpredictable flows. An example of impairing delivery reliability is the amount of oil that must stay in a pipeline which is called pipeline fill. The Alaskan pipeline holds about 9 million barrels of crude oil all the time.

Only 10-15% of the world’s oil stocks are usable by the industry when and how it chooses. These stocks are called discretionary stocks. It’s the movements in this small 10-15% that link to prices. A small inventory increase or decrease of the total stock level can result in a large price change because of the small amount (10-15%) that can be used.

Chevron Contemplating Oil and Gas Investments in Congo

The Oil Minister Celestin Mbuyu stated that the Democratic Republic of Congo is in discussion with Chevron Corp. (CVX) and Petroleo Brasileiro SA (PETR4) for investing in oil and gas. A better oil and gas infrastructure is aimed for by the Central African nation through providing blocks to companies for exploration. Congo and Chevron group are in talks for treatment plans and gas production which may result for some changes for the company projects in the adjoining Angola. The state owned oil producer of Congo, Cohydro signed a cooperation deal with Korea National Oil Corp and aims to sign a similar deal with Petrobras.

Mbuyu stated that the officials of Petrobras will come to Congo in the upcoming weeks. A proposal will be prepared by these officials and Mbuy which will then be presented to the government. The proposal will probably constitute sharing of training, knowledge and expertise between Petrobas and Cohydro.

The current oil production of Congo is up to 25000 barrels per day. The Congo aims to raise its oil production from drilling at the eastern borders at Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda. Oil investments will also be poured to increase production from its central basin and the western coast.

Petrobas related its experience of investing in oil and gas operations in the tropical forests and coastal belts. The Congo forest is demarked into oil blocks and boasts of being the second largest tropical forest in the world.

Petrobras refused to comment on its status of talks with the Congo

An agreement between the Congo and Chevron makes it possible for Chevron to transport from Angola to a gas plant in Soyo through a pipeline that runs through the Atlantic coastline of Congo. The treatment of gas from Congo at the Soyo plant may also be on the cards. The potential gas deposits in Congo have also attracted the attention of Chevron, stated Mbuyu.

Chevron has also stated to an agreement for finding potential gas markets which Congo produces as by product of its petroleum production. A representative of Chevron released an email stating that the policy of the company is not to release comments on particular business opportunities.

The oil bock ownership is Angola is not clear and Chevron has postponed its development plans for this oil block. The maritime border issue between Congo and Angola remains unresolved.

Due to the scheduled elections on November 28th this year, a decision by the parliament regarding a new set of codes to monitor the hydrocarbon industry may be late in coming.