Animal Testing

In 1988, I chose to spend an evening viewing Victor Schonfeld’s “The Animals Film.” This was a strange and revelatory experience. Sitting in front of a small screen, the history of animal exploitation flickered before my eyes. From the first steps in the 1930’s when farm animals were crowded indoors for reasons other than winter, to dog and cock fighting, bear baiting, fox hunting and hare coursing, to name but a few. I already knew of this – who doesn’t – but I wasn’t prepared for one of the most disturbing examples of humanities grim cruelty toward animals, vivisection. Until then, I had an image of science as a dynamic, progressive, frontier-expanding activity, and of its practitioners as dedicated teams of rational, open-minded professionals whose motivation was highly moral and whose concern was to benefit humanity. Much of the evidence presented in this film suggested quite the contrary, with the main beneficiary of these tests being the company profit margin.

It is not difficult to understand why animals are treated so indifferently in a society where the powerful minority holds the majority in similar contempt. What is hard is to break the circle of unthinking cruelty, and this can only be done as people begin to question the accepted values of our way of life and the grim fact of our endemic destructiveness. Here, as with other conflicts, we must build our conceptual bridges with the resources of our age. Puzzling and agonizing though these clashes often are, we know we must somehow deal with them by working out; how we should ideally think about the world and relate to animals.

The way we think about the world has a fundamental impact on decisions concerning the treatment of animals and our relationship with them. Given the importance of this, it is somewhat surprising to contemplate that the majority of people never question the way they think about the world. In many cases the world is a place where everything is ‘natural’ and ‘inevitable.’ We seem to have an astonishing ability to close our eyes to the truth, to live in a world of delusions and make-believe. These characteristics, shared to a greater or lesser extent by all of us, have helped to create a sick planet and a great deal of suffering to animals.

If everybody showed respect and had compassion for the nonhuman world, the earth would then undoubtedly become a more balanced and healthier place to live. Furthermore, if people maintain that compassion they will automatically free themselves from their mental patterns of ignorance. Knowing what is beneficial to yourself and others, and being able to do it, is wisdom, which cuts through our fundamental ignorance. Indeed, “The greatest knowledge we can posses, Socrates maintained, the only knowledge that matters a damn, is the awareness of our boundless, fathomless ignorance.”

Essentially, what needs to be done is not that particularly difficult, it is just a matter of a simple turn-around in attitude. Just because the way we think about animals has been inoculated culturally (and not programmed into us genetically as those who take part in blood sports occasionally claim), does not mean the disease is not treatable. If changed attitudes then lead not only changes in our personal lives but also to policy changes at the corporate and government level, indeed we have cause for hope. As civilizations advance, the trend must always be toward increasing humanity and compassion, and deceasing cruelty and exploitation.

People need to educate themselves about vivisection and pass on this information to friends and family. It is only our ignorance on the issue that perpetuates this cruel and barbaric practice. Something can always be done if the will of the majority dictates it. You can find out more about vivisection from any of the following organizations: British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection; Dr Hadwen Trust; Doctors and Lawyers for Responsible Medicine; Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments; National Anti-Vivisection Society; People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals; The Humane Research Trust. There is also a selection of informative short videos on You Tube, just enter vivisection or animal testing/experimentation.

One of the most effective ways of turning changed attitudes into positive, concrete actions is by buying products not tested on animals. The grim fact is that all too many companies still test their final products and ingredients on live animals. Buying products that are cruelty free demonstrates to those companies that continue to test that you will not be supporting them. Nowadays, it’s very easy to find products not tested on animals and these can easily be found on the internet (i.e. Caring Consumer, Go Cruelty Free, Leaping Bunny, Uncaged, etc), in whole-food and ‘alternative’ shops, and increasingly in some supermarkets (i.e. all Co-op own brands are not tested on animals).

Unlike so many other animal abuses, the issue of using animals in product testing is one that ultimately rests with consumers. Reliance on animal testing methods for cosmetic and household products will continue unless concerned citizens speak out with their purchasing power. By making informed humane choices and encouraging others to do the same, individuals can push for an end to product testing and stop the needless suffering of countless animals each year.

School Science Lab Equipment

Who should be allowed to the school science labs?

Very often, one of the more interesting things for students to learn about in school is science. Finally, although it can be quite difficult to do any practical work exciting history, or literature, or math class, it is possible to show that the various principles of an exciting science class, right there, on condition that the school should be a pleasant kind of equipment. Thus, not only to learn about scientific theories, children can experience first hand the subject a lot of interesting and memorable.

Of course, this situation is necessarily limited in the classroom, students and teachers to use, that there is an important question: what, exactly, should teachers in their school classrooms and science (or) laboratory equipment that is available? The important point to consider because one the one hand, a lot of equipment around can be a fantastic resource for students who might otherwise not be very interested in science to get the opportunity to see the unusual action.

On the other hand, a lot of equipment can get expensive very quickly, not to mention the fact that if you are not careful about deciding which equipment will take place in the classroom, students can be associated with more than they can handle, which can create a dangerous situation.

When we consider what equipment needs to be an ideal of science in the classroom is much to consider, because there are many different sciences. One must first consider the biology. Biology class, it may be useful for students to sample living creatures. This is a great opportunity to grow plants in the classroom, because students will enjoy watching them grow, and they are inexpensive. In addition, except when the plants are toxic, the risk is not a concern for students.

Moreover, the question arises, to bring creatures to class. It can be difficult, but important, not anything that requires too much space or attention. Any animal that can live in aquariums or terrariums and can safely be left for a long weekend with some food and water, probably a good thing.

Then there is the issue of equipment, chemistry or physics classrooms. There is fire and smoke or other hazardous situations that could arise if students, teachers, you are not careful about potential. The best policy is one that maintains the optimal balance between safety, cost, and, of course, the value of education. While this, of course, want to wish all of your solar science lab, right there, on condition that the school should be a pleasant kind of equipment. Thus, not only to learn about scientific theories, children can experience first hand the subject a lot of interesting and memorable.teachers should bear in mind, what specific pieces of equipment actually get used, and often the greatest impact.

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising livestock within the agricultural industry. It has been practiced for thousands of years and originates back to when animals first started to become domesticated, somewhere in the region of 9000 BC.

A domesticated animal is an animal that is bred and raised under human control as a result of generations of altering the appearance and or behavior of the animal. Animals that fall into this category are typically pigs, ferrets, turkeys, canaries, domestic pigeons, budgerigars, goldfish, silkworms, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, chickens, llamas, guinea pigs, laboratory mice, goats and (silver) foxes. Of these you can see a great many are used within the farming world for producing milk, meat, wool, silk and other produce like dairy.

Animal husbandry can also be referred to as animal science, stock breeding or simple husbandry. Anyone that takes care of a lot of animals will be required to participate in animal husbandry which is essentially the care and breeding of any given animal. The level of care and attention any given animal type will need can vary greatly. From cattle husbandry to sheep husbandry, the demands are varied and can also depend on the time of year too.

Sheep for instance will need a lot of attention in spring time when they typically get shore and head into the lambing season. Those few months are demanding on the farmer and will take up lots of his time. Cattle on the other hand do not require any shearing and can be let out to graze on the land when the weather gets warmer, this can often relieve the farmer of many daily duties that bind him during the winter months like scraping out and bedding up (cleaning their living quarters and giving them fresh straw to sleep on), although cattle will require milking at least once a day, mostly twice and this can be fairly labor intensive.

Chickens that lay eggs, layers, are fairly easy when it comes to animal husbandry, as long as they have a continuous supply of water and food. Collecting the eggs will be required once a day as will letting them in and out of their houses in daylight hours.

Masters in Clinical Laboratory Science Degree

Masters degrees in Clinical Laboratory Science + Medical Technology + Technologist: A program that prepares individuals to conduct and supervise complex medical tests, clinical trials, and research experiments; manage clinical laboratories; and consult with physicians and clinical researchers on diagnoses, disease causation and spread, and research outcomes. Includes instruction in the theory and practice of hematology; clinical chemistry; microbiology; immunology; immunohematology; physiological relationships to test results; laboratory procedures and quality assurance controls; test and research design and implementation; analytic techniques; laboratory management and personnel supervision; data development and reporting; medical informatics; and professional standards and regulations.

Top Online Masters Degree in Clinical Laboratory Science Programs

At the graduate level, chemical principles, hemostasis and special procedures and general biology are some of the common subjects for core online masters degree clinical laboratory science classes. And elective courses in areas including research in science Mediterranean world and management of human resources are offered.
Programs offer specializations in areas including:

  • Biomedical Sciences
  • Pre-Medical Technology
  • Medical/Clinical Laboratory Science
  • Clinical Research Administration
  • Chemistry For Clinical Laboratory Science

The following types of programs are available at schools across the nation:

  • Online Master of Health Science in Clinical Laboratory Science
  • Online Master of Science in Clinical Laboratory Science

Clinical laboratory scientists play a crucial support role in science and medicine. A laboratory sciences career can take you to the front lines of research and diagnostic testing in areas like genetics, pathology, hematology, and microbiology.

A master’s degree is the key to advancing your lab sciences career. Move from entry-level testing roles to research design, interpretation, and supervision. Graduate laboratory sciences programs also offer the opportunity to develop specialized scientific knowledge and update your technological expertise. Most programs are designed as post-professional degrees, with the option for working students to earn a master’s degree online.

A range of resources to get you started on the path to a master’s degree in laboratory sciences. This guide takes you through the steps of planning a graduate degree in laboratory sciences, with links to online resources along the way.

Guide to Master’s Degrees in Laboratory Sciences

Clinical laboratory sciences brings together technical training in lab skills and a strong foundation in biology, chemistry, and medical knowledge.

The “Laboratory” side of the discipline incorporates hands-on practice in:

  • The use of advanced scientific equipment
  • Specimen preparation and microscopic analysis
  • Research data management, or informatics
  • Safety and quality assurance

The “Sciences” foundation encompasses:

Molecular Biology, a broad branch of biology dealing with the molecular components essential to life: genes, proteins, nucleic acids, etc.

Biochemistry, the study of chemical processes as they impact the human body and other living organisms. This field intersects molecular biology, studying the function of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, enzymes, etc.
Physiology, the study of the physical, mechanics, and biochemical processes involved in an organism’s proper function.

Neuroscience, the study of the nervous system and its impact on cognition, perception, cell development, and physiology.

Genetics, the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics via genes.

A laboratory sciences master’s degree cultivates a working knowledge of these key scientific disciplines with the purpose of improving your research and diagnostic capability as a lab technician or scientist.

Professional and Academic Master’s Degrees

Graduate laboratory sciences programs define their curriculum at various points along the academic-professional spectrum. No matter which program you choose, the curriculum includes some form of scientific education and lab training. Differences arise in the structure and requirements of the academic and professional master’s degrees.

Master of Science

The MS in laboratory sciences is modeled after the academic science master’s degree. The course curriculum cultivates a broad foundation in the field, developing competency in several key fields. The program culminates in a scholarly research project designed to advance knowledge in a specific area. A Master of Science qualifies you to head directly into professional practice or toward an academic career, via the PhD in clinical laboratory science.

Professional Master’s Degrees

Professional master’s degrees are generally designed for mid-career scientists and medical technologists who want to upgrade their laboratory expertise and advance their careers. The curriculum focuses on a specialized practice area and typically involves an internship or applied lab project.
Examples of professional degrees include:

  • Master in Molecular Diagnostic Science (MMDS)
  • Masters in Health Systems (MHS)
  • Master of Health Science
  • Master of Clinical Laboratory Science (MCLS)

A professional graduate degree can help you move from entry-level work into specialized practice areas or supervisory roles. Programs accommodate professionals through flexible scheduling and the option to earn a master’s degree online.

Specializations

Whether you choose an academic or professional master’s degree, you’ll have the opportunity to follow your interests into a specialized niche of laboratory sciences. Consider these options for focused study:
Scientific sub-fields:

  • Hematology is the study of blood, including blood-producing organs and diseases.
  • Microbiology is the study of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, etc.) and their impact on the human body.
  • Immunology is the study of the immune system, focusing on natural defense mechanisms and disorders such as auto-immune diseases.
  • Virology is the study of viruses and viral diseases.
  • Histology is the microscopic study of the tissues of an organism–human, animal, or plant.

Clinical lab methods:

  • Serology refers to blood tests designed to measure and characterize the antibodies, antigens, and other immunological substances present in the body.
  • DNA Science refers to DNA research and testing methods such as DNA extraction, transcription, sequencing, and typing or profiling. Specialized DNA research tools include recombinant DNA technology and DNA ligation.
  • Stem Cell Research refers to cutting-edge research in the use of these undifferentiated cells for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions.
  • Flow Cytometry is a technique or sorting and classifying cells and microscopic particles using fluorescent markers. It is widely used in molecular and cell biology research as well as the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as cancer.

Most programs allow you to specialize further within these areas by developing your own academic research or applied project topic.

Career Track

A master’s degree in clinical laboratory sciences prepares you to work in a laboratory in the vast world of scientific, medical, and commercial research and development. Opportunities are available at:

  • Hospitals and clinics
  • Physician’s private practices
  • Pathology labs
  • Public health organizations
  • Government agencies
  • Pharmaceutical companies
  • Biotech research firms
  • Universities
  • Law enforcement forensics labs
  • Commercial R&D

Work in medical diagnostics, commercial product development and quality assurance, or scientific research. A graduate laboratory sciences degree can be your ticket to supervisory roles such as lab manager or director, or to specialized research positions. Some graduates use the master’s degree as a stepping stone to a university research and teaching career (via the PhD), or a medical career (via the MD or physician assistant training). Sample job titles with a master’s degree in laboratory sciences include:

  • Clinical Laboratory Scientist at a hospital, clinic, or commercial R&D lab
  • Clinical Laboratory Supervisor or Director
  • Clinical Laboratory Specialist (histotechnologist, cytogenetic technologist, pathologist, diagnostic molecular scientist, etc.)
  • Quality Assurance Specialist at a hospital, pharmaceutical lab, or commercial R&D
  • Technical Sales Representative
  • Clinical Research Associate (CRA) at a clinical trials service
  • Medical Laboratory Technologist or Research Technologist
  • Laboratory Information Systems Specialist
  • Infection control officer at a hospital
  • Laboratory Science Educator

The History of Animal Breeding

What is BREEDING: The producing of plants and animals, esp. for the purpose of developing new or better types is known as breeding.

Importance of breeding: There is a vast scope of breeding mostly in the economic considerations, and better welfare of the human beings. Breeding can be done in both plants and animals as in case of animals it is called as animal breeding and it can be livestock breeding ,poultry breeding etc.

ANIMAL BREEDING

The science of ANIMAL breeding is defined as the application of the principles of GENETICS and biometry to improve the efficiency of production in farm animals. These principles were applied to change animal populations thousands of years before the sciences of genetics and biometry were formally established. The practice of animal breeding dates back to the Neolithic period (approximately 7000 BC), when people attempted to domesticate wild species such as caribou, goats, hogs and DOGS. Animal breeding, as an applied field of population genetics, has a well-developed mathematical foundation that was laid early in its development. Facets of major emphasis in current animal breeding include the utilization of new estimation procedures for random effects, the incorporation of economics in the development of breeding program designed for the livestock industry, the verification of theory and testing of breeding schemes using laboratory organisms, the evaluation of new germ plasma available in livestock populations, and the application of breeding principles to the livestock industry. There are real opportunities in animal breeding to serve the current livestock industry. Lush developed a graduate program starting in the 1930s that produced students trained to apply the principles of population genetics to the improvement of domestic livestock. Animal breeding as a modern SCIENCE belongs to the 20th century. Although numerous geneticists and biometrics have made significant contributions to the development of this science. Lush of Iowa State University is considered as the father of the modern science of animal breeding. There are various methods of breeding adopted in case of animal’s i.e. Line breeding, inbreeding, out crossing, etc.

IMPORTANCE OR SCOPE OF ANIMAL BREEDING

It is adopted for various purposes e.g. economic considerations etc. Primary Function = production of high quality protein.Essential for proper growth and development of MAN.

Preferred = meat, eggs, milk.So there are many reasons why animal breeding is of paramount importance to those who use animals for their livelihood.

  • Cats have been bred largely for aesthetic beauty; many people are willing to pay a great deal of money for a Siamese or Persian cat, even though the affection felt for a pet has little to do with physical appearance. But the most extensive animal breeding has occurred in those areas where animals have been used to serve specific practical purposes
  • For instance, most dog breeds are the result of a deliberate attempt to isolate traits that would produce better hunting and herding dogs (although some, like toy poodles, were bred for traits that would make them desirable pets).
  • Horses have also been extensively bred for certain useful qualities; some for size and strength, some for speed.
  • But farm animals, particularly food animals, have been the subject of the most intensive breeding efforts. The physical qualities of economic importance in farm animals vary for each species, but a generalized goal is to eliminate the effects of environment and nutrition. An ideal strain of milk cow, for instance, would produce a large amount of high-quality milk despite the type of food it is fed and the environment in which it is reared. Thus, animals are generally all bred for feed efficiency, growth rate, and resistance to disease.
  • However, a pig might be bred for lean content in its meat, while a hen would be bred for its laying potential. Many cows have been bred to be hornless, so they cannot inadvertently or deliberately gore each other.

HISTORICAL

Pure breeding is an ancient idea for a number of reasons particularly the caste system of society. Emphasis on ancestry in human genealogies is older than history. Man’s attempts to breed livestock to serve his purpose go far back into man’s own history. More than a thousand years ago, the Arabs in their horse breeding were memorizing the genealogies of their horses but the way they used these genealogies to breed their horses is not known. After the Second World War, several regional projects, patterned after the successful regional swine-breeding laboratory, were started with adequate funding from state experiment stations and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to initiate some large-scale animal breeding research projects. Today the fruits of these long-term investigations are seen in the dairy, poultry, swine, sheep and beef industries. The extent of breeding technology utilized by the various industries is related to their reproductive potential or to a reproductive innovation such as artificial insemination.

The development of the selection index by Hazel and Lush (1942) opened new vistas of theoretical development. Recently, Henderson (1972, 1975) has consolidated work that extends statistical theory to the estimation of random variables and the estimation of maximum likelihood estimates of fixed effects. It utilizes selection index concepts along with those of least squares. This new theory is currently being used in dairy and beef sire evaluation. This area of statistical estimation is being actively pursued, as evidenced by the work of Freeman (1973) and Powell et al. (1975). The development by Harvey (1960) of least-squares analysis of data with unequal subclass numbers and his subsequent writing of analysis program have been utilized by breeders and are responsible for considerable statistical sophistication in the breeding literature.

Robert Bakewell, an English animal breeder of the 18th century, is considered the founder of systematized animal breeding. He was the first to emphasize the importance of accurate breeding records, introduced the concept of progeny testing to evaluate the genetic potentials of young sires, and applied inbreeding to stabilize desired qualitative traits. He also promoted concepts such as “like begets like, “potency is associated with inbreeding” and “breed the best to the best.” Bakewell and his contemporaries in Europe pioneered the development of diverse breeds of BEEF cattle, DAIRY cattle, SHEEP, hogs and HORSES. Most livestock breeds with pedigree herd books and breed associations were established between the late 18th century and the second half of the 19th century. The Romans of the time of varro and Catto (2000 years ago) made many comments about kinds and types of animals to be selected for breeding purposes, although they made no attempt to record long pedigrees for their livestock. The Roman, Varro advocated the idea of progeny testing 2000 years ago.

Kids Science Experiments

Science plays a very important role in life. Whether your child wants to be the next Albert Einstein or not, he should have a solid foundation of what Science is. Science is all around us and affects everything that we do. Being aware of the reason why things happen, or why certain phenomenon occurs is important to impart to the younger generations. Science is one complicated and multifaceted subject. Despite the complications, teaching science for kids can be quite a satisfying and enjoyable experience. For one, science for youngsters is extremely simple in nature even if it addresses numerous subjects.

The important element in teaching the subject is always to make the concepts easy to understand as well as logical yet not at all tedious. Teaching science for young people will require high level of creative imagination so that you can ignite children’s curiosity as well as interest. Here are several techniques parents, guardians, or teachers can perform while teaching Science.

What’s on the News – Every day, you and your youngster can look at the daily newspapers or even browse the net for internet updates and open up a discussion pertaining to one particular post. Remember to select short but informative topic since kids’ attention span is short. The content should be light and can easily be understood. One example could be the daily weather.

Scientist of the Day – Grant your kids an opportunity to do a bit of exploration and allow him or her share with you precisely what he or she learned. Say, now let him or her view National Geographic and permit him or her to go over precisely what he’s learned about a specific wild animal. Pertaining to in-class schooling, the teacher can pick out just one pupil everyday to be the “scientist of the day” who’ll have the opportunity to talk about to the group what she or he has looked into. By the end of each talk, present your opinions around the subject matter too.

Fun Science Experiments – Educate young ones about science subject areas with experiments. An example is boiling water to describe about evaporation, or perhaps melting ice cubes to talk about condensation. To get more ideas, it’s worth checking out Science Experiments for Kids.

Toys/Gadgets/Games – Young people may learn even without the need of textbooks. Learning is often more fun if introduced through toys or games. Bear in mind that children get to focus more when they are having fun. Challenge their young minds by letting them play a game and reward them after.

Field Day – Once in a while, get out with your kid and have a walk. There’s science everywhere. Go to the zoo and teach them about animals. Go to the park and teach them about plants. Go to the mall and teach them about the latest technology. Go to the grocery and teach them why some food items are good or bad for the health.

There are a lot of methods to teach your kids or your students about Science. What makes it exciting and interesting is that you can teach them in real action. By actually experiencing science in action helps it be a more productive learning session.